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The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is India's central agency authorized to conduct the Civil Services Examination, Engineering Services Examination, Combined Defence Services Examination, National Defence Academy Examination, Naval Academy Examination andCombined Medical Services Examination. The agency's charter is granted by the Constitution of India. Articles 315 to 323 of Part XIV of the constitution, titled Services Under the Union and the States, provide for a Public Service Commission for the Union and for each state.
The Royal Commission on the Superior Civil Services in India under the Chairmanship of Lord Lee, which submitted its Report in 1924,recommended the setting up of the Public Service Commission. This led to the establishment of the first Public Service Commission on October 1, 1926 under the Chairmanship of Sir Ross Barker. The limited advisory function accorded to the Public Service Commission and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of a Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act, 1935. The Federal Public Service Commission became the Union Public Service Commission after Independence and it was given a Constitutional status with the promulgation of Constitution of India on January 26, 1950.
Administration and Control
The Commission consists of a Chairman and ten Members. The terms and conditions of service of Chairman and Members of the Commission are governed by the Union Public Service Commission (Members) Regulations, 1969. The Chairman and other members of the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) are appointed by the President of India. At least half of the members of the Commission are Civil Servants (working or retired) with minimum ten years of experience either in Central or State service.
The Commission is serviced by a Secretariat headed by a Secretary with two Additional Secretaries, a number of Joint Secretaries, Deputy Secretaries and other supporting staff.
Members of the UPSC
Every member holds office for a term of six years or until he attains the age of sixty-five years, whichever is earlier.
He can submit his resignation at any time to the President of India. He may be removed from his office by the President of India on the ground of misbehavior (only if an inquiry of such misbehavior is made and upheld by Supreme Court) or if he is adjudged insolvent, or engages during his term of office in any paid employment outside the duties of his office, or in the opinion of the President unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body.
U.P.S.C. is amongst the few institutions which function with both autonomy and freedom along with the country’s higher judiciary and lately the Election Commission.
As of July 30, 2012, the Commission consists of a Chairman and 10 members. The names of the members in order of appointment to the post are :

1. Shri Prashanta Kumar Mishra
2. Shri Vijay Singh (ex-Defence Secretary)
3. Smt. Rajni Razdan
4. Dr. Venkatarami Reddy Y
5. Smt. Alka Sirohi
6. Prof. David R. Syiemlieh
7. Shri Manbir Singh (ex-IFS)
8. Shri Amar Pratap Singh (Former CBI Director)

Recruitment Rules
In accordance with the provisions contained in Article 320 of the Constitution read with the provisions of Union Public Service Commission (Exemption from Consultation) Regulations 1958, Recruitment Rules of all Group ‘A’ and Group ‘B" posts in various Ministries/Departments of Government of India are required to be framed in Consultation with the Commission. Consultation with the Commission is also necessary for framing/amending Recruitment Rules for certain categories of posts under the Employees State Insurance Corporation, The Delhi Municipal Corporation, The New Delhi Municipal Council, Employees Provident Fund Organisation etc. under the relevant Acts made by Parliament in pursuance of the provisions of Article 321.a

Gender issue in application form
While the notification of UPSC claims"Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply ", the application form available online doesn't have the option for "others" under the category of sex.This was highlighted through an RTI appeal filed by a Madurai-based 23-year-transgender, Swapna.[5]

The UPSC annually submits a report of its work to the President of India. Further it is sent to each house of Parliament for discussion.The commission submits an annual reporton the work done by it to the president.The president places the report of the commission before the parliament along with a memorandum with regard to the cases where the advice of the commission was not accepted and the reasons for such non-acceptance.

CSE - Civil Services Exam (UPSC)
CSAT (Prelims) Pattern
The Preliminary Examination consists of two papers of Objective type (multiple choice questions) and carry maximum of 400 marks. This exam is only a screening test; the marks obtained in the prelims are only for qualifying for main exam and are not counted for determining final order of merit.
Prelims Paper Duration Questions Marks
Paper I - General Studies 2 Hours 100 200
Paper II - Aptitude 2 Hours 80 200
Total   400

Civil Services (Mains) Pattern

The pattern has changed from 2013 main examination. The new pattern is:
Paper Subject Marks
Paper A Language (Qualifying) 300
Paper B English (Qualifying) 300
Paper I Essay 250
Paper II General Studies - I 250
Paper III General Studies - II 250
Paper IV General Studies - III 250
Paper V General Studies - IV 250
Paper VI Optional Subject Paper 1 250
Paper VII Optional Subject Paper 2 250
Total   1750
  Interview (Personality Test) 275
Grand Total   2025

Syllabus: Prelims (GS CSAT)
CSAT from 2011
The Government of India has announced a new pattern of examination to sort out candidates for the Indian Civil Services main examination. The new pattern, to be called the Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT), will replace the existing preliminary examination. It will be conducted from the next year. The announcement was made by the Minister of State for personnel Prithvi Raj Chavan after the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh gave his approval for the introduction of CSAT.
The proposal for CSAT was submitted last year to the PM’s office by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). The CSAT will consist of two papers. Both the papers will be of objective type and will focus on the aptitude test for the civil services and the ethical and moral dimensions of decision-making. Unlike the existing preliminary examination, in CSAT both the papers will be common for all and will carry equal weightage. This is understood to be one of the main features of CSAT. In preliminary examination, one paper is common for all the examinee while the second paper is optional where they can choose any one of the given 23 subjects.
Expert committees and panels who had submitted their reports regarding the introduction of CSAT have laid more emphasis on the candidate’s aptitude. They believe that one need not to be a subject specialist to become a good civil servant. The Civil Services examination is carried out by the UPSC in three stages. From 2011 onwards, the first stage will be compromised of CSAT while the second and third stage will remain unchanged. Experts are also reviewing the second and third stages of the examination.

Changes in syllabus and pattern of the Preliminary Examination from 2011 in the scheme of Civil Services Examination
• As per the decision of Government of India, there shall be change in the syllabus and pattern of the Preliminary Examination from 2011 in the scheme of the Civil Services Examination.
• The Preliminary Examination shall now comprise of two compulsory Papers of 200 marks each and of two hours duration each. Detailed below is the new syllabus and pattern of the Preliminary Examination, which is brought to the notice of the prospective candidates intending to appear at the Civil Services Examination (CSE) in 2011 onwards:

Paper I - (200 marks) Duration: Two hours
• Current events of national and international importance
• History of India and Indian National Movement
• Indian and World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic geography of India and the World.
• Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
• Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
• General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization
• General Science

Paper II- (200 marks) Duration: Two hours
• Comprehension
• Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
• Logical reasoning and analytical ability
• Decision making and problem solving
• General mental ability
• Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc.Class X level)
• English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).
• Questions relating to English Language Comprehension skills of Class X level (last item in the Syllabus of Paper-II) will be tested through passages from English language only without providing Hindi translation thereof in the question paper.
• The questions will be of multiple choices, objective type.

CSE Mains General Studies Syllabus
The syllabus has changed from 2013 onwards. This is new syllabus.

CSE Mains General Studies Paper - I
(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)
»Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
» Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues.
» The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors or contributions from different parts of the country.
» Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
» History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. - their forms and effect on the society.
» Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
» Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
» Effects of globalization on Indian society.
» Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
» Salient features of world’s physical geography.
» Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
» Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location - changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

CSE Mains General Studies Paper - II
(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)
» Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
» Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
» Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
» Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
» Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
» Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
» Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
» Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
» Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
» Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
» Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
» Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
» Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
» Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
» Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
» Role of civil services in a democracy.
» India and its neighborhood- relations.
» Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
» Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
» Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

CSE Mains General Studies Paper - III
(Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)
» Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
» Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
» Government Budgeting.
» Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
» Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
» Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
» Land reforms in India.
» Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
» Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc.
» Investment models.
» Science and Technology - developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
» Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
» Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
» Disaster and disaster management.
» Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
» Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
» Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
» Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
» Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

CSE Mains General Studies Paper - IV
(Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude)
This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.
» Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
» Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
» Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weakersections.
» Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
» Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
» Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
» Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
» Case Studies on above issues.
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